Wildlife plays an important role in the ecosystem in creating a balanced ecosystem.
The government of India has passed various laws and conservation projects in order
to protect and safeguard the environment and all the species existing within its
habitat which includes all the animals, birds, plants, and even the microorganisms
which are going through a phase of extinction due to the climatic crisis, the
destruction of nature, environment, and wildlife and the irreversible depletion of
natural resources due to globalization.
So realizing the need for protection of our environment the government of India has taken several conservation projects inorder to protect, preserve and restore the ecosystem.
Otherwise even the extinction of one species can greatly affect the life cycle of other existing species.
Status of India In Wildlife and Biodiversity
India consists of the seventeen mega diversities within the world, which includes
7.6% of all mammals, 12.6 % of birds, 6.2% of reptiles, and 6.0% of plant species.
Due to the ongoing developments taking place, the government of India has taken
various measures to preserve the natural habitat in the nation, and the wildlife
protection Act of 1972 is the most magnificent among them.
Other than this the government of India has taken a lot more measures to keep up its rich wildlife. Some of the significant ones are:- project Snow Leopard, project tiger, project
elephant, project on conservation of crocodiles, UNDP marine turtle conservation
Project snow leopard
These leopards which are mainly seen in the Himalayan landscape was listed
among the vulnerable category by the IUCN.
The primary threat to these leopards was poaching and loss of habitat. The project snow leopard was launched in 2009, aiming at protecting them from extinction.
These snow leopards are also inhabitants of Jammu and Kashmir, Sikkim, Uttarakhand, and Arunachal Pradesh.
The government takes care of the project by using camera traps and conducting
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Project tiger is a tiger conservation program brought about in April 1972 by the
government of India.
The main aim of the project was to increase the declining number of Bengal tigers thereby protecting them from extinction.
As an initiative of the same poaching of tigers were strictly banned and their migratory routes were conserved.
This project has shown major success in the recovery of the habitat and it also resulted in the increase of the population of the tigers within the reserve areas, which reached upto 2000 plus tigers in 2016.
The main aim of the project was to ensure the survival of the elephants in their natural habitats and this was done by preserving their natural habitat and migration corridors.
As a part of this project an awareness was given among the local people about the importance of conservation and Welfare of captive elephants, poaching of elephants was strictly banned, rescue and rehabilitation centres were established.
The project was implemented in 16 states.
Project on conservation of crocodiles
Due to the decline in the population of crocodiles, the government of India launched the crocodile conservation program in 1975.
As a part of this project, crocodiles eggs were captive-reared with proper incubation and were later released into the wild when they reach maturity (almost at the age of 3 years).
And crocodile Rehabilitation Centres were also established (16 rehabilitation centers and 11 crocodile sanctuaries were entrenched ).
One of the most famous sanctuary for the protection of crocodiles is situated in Madhya Pradesh which was established in 1979.
UNDP marine turtle conservation project
The main objective of this project was to conserve the Pacific Ridley turtles, which was initiated by the Wildlife Institute of India, Dehradun in November 1999.
The main focus of the project was in Odisha, where it focused on constructing a map
of breeding sites of sea turtles. The main activities of the project include
- Identifying the breeding sites of sea Turtles
- Conservation of habitats along the coastal line.
- Conservation of the migratory routes of the sea turtles
It also spread awareness about reducing the turtle death rate. The main achievement of the project was the use of satellite telemetry to locate the migratory routes of sea turtles within the sea.
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Important environment protection acts passed by the government of India
Fisheries act 1897
Indian forest act 1927
Mining and mineral development regulation act 1957
Prevention of cruelty to animals 1960
Wildlife protection Act, 1972
Water prevention and control of pollution act 1974
Forest conservation act 1980
Air prevention and control of pollution act 1974
Environment protection act 1986
Biological diversity act 2002
Scheduled tribes and other traditional forest dwellers recognition of rights
Other steps taken by the government of India for wildlife protection includes
- Wildlife protection act, 1972 by the central government-which provides
protection of wildlife and punishment for poaching animals.
- Wetland conservation rules 2010 -for the conservation of wetlands in the
- Wildlife crime control bureau was established in order to control illegal trade
in wildlife and to protect Endangered Species.
- As per the wildlife protection act, 1972 protected areas such as national
parks, sanctuaries, conservation reserves, etc have been created all over the
- National Plan for the conservation of the aquatic ecosystem
- The government of India banned the veterinary use of diclofenac drug that
resulted in the decline of gyps vulture across the Indian subcontinent.
Conservation breeding activities to conserve the vulture species have been
started in Haryana, West Bengal and Assam.
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Like this, the government of India has taken and is still taking various kinds of measures in order to protect its wildlife habitat.
But we should realize that it’s not only the responsibility of the government but we can also contribute to protecting the wildlife and habitat by sacrificing certain manmade harms such as poaching animals, cutting down trees causing deforestation, urbanization, increased pollution, and over-exploitation of the plant and animal species faster than the species ability to recover, culling, etc.
And considering them also as a part of us without which we humans will not be there. When we destroy a habitat we are also destroying the species living in that habitat.
So when we cut down the forest for our selfish needs such as agriculture whereby destroying the natural wildlife habitat, the thought should come to our mind that we are paving the way for our own destruction.
So from now onwards let’s hold our hands together in conserving our wildlife habitat.